These estimates probably include deaths of Vietnamese soldiers in Laos and Cambodia, but do not include deaths of South Vietnamese and allied soldiers which would add nearly 300,000 for a grand total of 3.4 million military and civilian dead. In addition, at least 36,000 Southern civilians were executed for various reasons in the period 1967–1972. , The Phoenix Program, a counterinsurgency program executed by the United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), United States special operations forces, and the Republic of Vietnam's security apparatus, killed 26,369 suspected of being VC operatives and informants. PAVN and VC deaths were reported as 1.1 million and civilian deaths of Vietnamese on both sides totaled 2.0 million. Lewy estimates that 40,000 South Vietnamese civilians were assassinated by the PAVN/VC; 250,000 were killed as a result of combat in South Vietnam, and 65,000 were killed in North Vietnam. A number of incidents occurred during the war in which civilians were deliberately targeted or killed.  The Red Cross of Vietnam estimates that up to 1 million people are disabled or suffer health problems due to Agent Orange exposure. Lewy reduced the number of Viet Cong (VC) and People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) battle deaths claimed by the U.S. by 30 percent (in accordance with the opinion of United States Department of Defense officials), and assumed that one third of the battle deaths of the PAVN/VC were actually civilians. (The estimates for 1955–64 are much higher than other estimates). It now stands at about 17.6 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants. How Many Americans Were Killed In The Vietnam War? How Many Elephants Were Killed In World War I? , The ARVN suffered 254,256 recorded combat deaths between 1960 and 1974, with the highest number of recorded deaths being in 1972, with 39,587 combat deaths. How Many People Are Killed By Sharks Every Year? The study came up with a most likely Vietnamese death toll of 882,000, which included 655,000 adult males (above 15 years of age), 143,000 adult females, and 84,000 children. Chapter 14: "The “cease-fire war” claimed 26,500 ARVN dead in 1973, and almost 30,000 in 1974.  Widespread reports of deliberate mass-killings were reported to have occurred, alleging that these were systemic, deliberate policies to massacre civilians with murders running into the hundreds. Because of incomplete records, Peckham estimated that this new total number of killed in action was still about 1,000 too low. North Vietnamese troops launched the Tet Offensive in January 1968, which was successful against South Vietnam and the U.S. How many American soldiers died during the Vietnam War?  During the peak war years, another scholar Guenter Lewy attributed almost a third of civilian deaths to the VC. The Vietnam War was extremely bloody for the United States, although of course it was much more so for the people of Vietnam (both combatants and civilians). There was a violent confrontation with demonstrators and U.S. Accurate assessments of NV Army and Viet Cong losses, he wrote, were 'largely impossible due to lack of disclosure by the Vietnamese government, terrain, destruction of remains by firepower, and [inability] to confirm artillery and aerial kills.' "Making More Enemies than We Kill? By the end of December, 1968 some 31000 Americans had been killed in Vietnam since 1961, and about 200000 had been wounded.  Benjamin Valentino attributes possibly 110,000–310,000 "counterguerrilla mass killings" to U.S. and South Vietnamese forces during the war. The first peace talks between the United States and North Vietnam during the Vietnam War began in. C. the late 1960s. , R. J. Rummel estimated that PAVN/VC forces killed around 164,000 civilians in democide between 1954 and 1975 in South Vietnam, from a range of between 106,000 and 227,000, plus another 50,000 killed in North Vietnam. , African Americans suffered disproportionately high casualty rates in Vietnam. As the Vietnam War dragged on, soldiers began to see the war as unjust and unwinnable, leading to openly mutinous behavior.By way of a “fragmentation grenade,” from which the term “fragging” was The inscription reads “In memory of the men and women who served in the Vietnam War and later died as a result of their service. In 1965 alone they comprised 14.1% of total combat deaths, when they only comprised approximately 11% of the total U.S. population in the same year. The New York Times estimated that, of the 8.4 million Vietnam veterans who were still alive in 2000, 1.1 million had died. During the last battle of the Vietnam War, three U.S. Marines went missing: Marine Pvt. According to RJ Rummel, there are lots of civilians and soldiers killed from the Vietnam War between 1964 and 1975: An estimated 1,500 people died during the forced relocations of 1,200,000 civilians, another 5,000 prisoners died from ill-treatment and about 30,000 suspected communists and fighters were executed. Communism developed in Vietnam, splitting the country into its South and North.  About 130 American and 16,000 South Vietnamese POWs died in captivity. His estimate of total deaths is reflected in the table. When he later read the official tally of dead, he found that it listed them as 130 VC killed. The U.S. National Archives shows that 58,220 U.S. soldiers perished. According to RJ Rummel, there are lots of civilians and soldiers killed from the Vietnam War between 1964 and 1975: An estimated 1,500 people died during the forced relocations of 1,200,000 civilians, another 5,000 prisoners died from ill-treatment and about 30,000 suspected communists and fighters were executed.  Higher estimates place the number of civilian deaths caused by American bombing of North Vietnam in Operation Rolling Thunder at 182,000. According to the Information Bureau of the Provisional Revolutionary Government of South Vietnam (PRG), between April 1968 and the end of 1970 American ground troops killed about 6,500 civilians in the course of twenty-one operations either on their own or alongside their allies. During the Vietnam War, there were hardly any females placed on active duty.  This might partially explain the discrepancies between recovered weapons and body-count figures, alongside exaggeration, although the NVA and VC also went to great lengths to recover weapons from the battlefield. 1st Class Gary Hall and Marine Lance Cpl.  In 2012 alone, unexploded bombs and other ordnance claimed 500 casualties in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia, according to activists and Vietnamese government databases. After the United States joined the Vietnam War, small protests began on college campuses and other areas. The United States has spent over $65 million since 1998 in an attempt to make Vietnam safe. , German historian Bernd Greiner mentions the following war crimes reported, and/or investigated by the Peers Commission and the Vietnam War Crimes Working Group, among other sources:. U.S. Coronavirus Flu Vietnam War Korean War. Democide is the murder of persons by or at the behest of governments. , Thomas Thayer in 1985 estimated that during the 1965–72 period the VC killed 33,052 South Vietnamese village officials and civil servants.. In 1954, North Vietnam defeated French colonial rule and tried to unify the whole country under one communist regime. Harper Perennial; September 1991. However the official start date for the conflict was 1 November 1955. The Vietnam War ranks fourth among U.S. wars in most Americans killed.  American bombing in Cambodia is estimated to have killed between 30,000 and 150,000 civilians and combatants. , Estimates for the number of North Vietnamese civilian deaths resulting from US bombing range from 30,000–65,000. These numbers do not include civilian and ARVN military deaths result from the communist mass-internment, the refugee crisis and subsequent exodus of Vietnamese people after the Fall of Saigon. Military: U.S. Army Lieutenant Colonel Annie Ruth Graham, Chief Nurse at 91st Evacuation Hospital, Tuy Hoa. The 'shameful gamesmanship' practiced by 'certain reporting elements' under pressure to 'produce results' also shrouded the process. Vietnam War POW/MIA List Accounted-For: This report includes the U.S. personnel who have been accounted for (including POW returnees and POW escapees) and all personnel whose remains have been recovered and identified since the end of the war. The U.S. Military estimated that approximately 200,000 to 250,000 South Vietnamese perished in the Vietnam War.  These policies are also reported by US commanders, with one US Marine General stating "whenever the Korean marines received fire "or think (they got) fired on from a village ... they'd divert from their march and go over and completely level the village ... it would be a lesson to (the Vietnamese). The Vietnam War was costing the U.S. some $25 billion per year, and disillusionment was beginning to reach greater sections of the taxpaying public. ~ The unemployment rate for Vietnam War Veterans was 4.8% compared to 6.2% for the rest of America. Along with that 1,587 soldiers missed somewhere in Vietnams’ jungles. On October 21, 1967, one of the best-know anti-war protests took place at the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, DC, with about 100,000 in attendance. In 1995, Vietnam released its official estimate of fatalities. Da Nang was the primary storage site of the chemical. , RJ Rummel estimates 1,011,000 PAVN/VC combatant deaths. The Vietnamese newspaper Nhân Dân reported in 2012 that the U.S. government was providing $41 million to the project, which aimed to reduce the contamination level in 73,000 m³ of soil by late 2016. Which occurred after US troops withdrew from South Vietnam? Over 2 million soldiers of both sides were wounded in the war but not killed. The war also spilled over into the neighboring countries of Cambodia and Laos which also endured casualties from aerial and ground fighting. Calculating U.S. Though many Americans were strongly opposed to this war, things did not really change until January 1973, when President Nixon announced the end to U.S. involvement. About a third of them marched on the Pentagon that night. "It was the epitome of immorality...One of the times I counted bodies after an air strike—which always ended with two napalm bombs which would just fry everything that was left—I counted sixty-two bodies. That same year, civil rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr. publicly opposed the war on moral grounds. Civilian deaths were partly caused by assassinations, massacres and terror tactics.  Black people often made up a disproportionate 25% or more of combat units, while constituting only 12% of the military. He suggests that another 222,000 civilians were counted as military deaths by the U.S. in compiling its "body count." At the same time, China and the Soviet Union were gathering leaders, combat troops, supplies, and weapons in the north. , Author Mark Woodruff noted that when the Vietnamese Government finally revealed its losses (in April 1995) as being 1.1 million dead, US body count figures had actually underestimated enemy losses. Seven massacres officially confirmed by the American side. We honor and remember their sacrifice.” Since 1999, the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund has held an In Memory Day ceremony each year to honor all those who died as a result of the war. As of June 8, 2020, the CDC shows this latter number at 92,922. Guenter Lewy in 1978 estimated 1,353,000 total deaths in North and South Vietnam during the period 1965–1974 in which the U.S. was most engaged in the war. Communist North Vietnam and its allies fought against South Vietnam (the Viet Cong) and its allies, including the United States. A. more than 50,000. One out of every 10 Americans who served in Vietnam was a casualty. The wide disparity among the estimates cited below is partially explained by the different time periods of the Vietnam War covered by the studies and whether casualties in Cambodia and Laos were included in the estimates. American casualties included over 58,200 killed, almost 1,690 missing in action, and over 303,630 injured. There were 1.4 million casualties during the Vietnam War.  There are further claims made that when air-strikes or artillery were called in on villages, usually civilian casualties were reported as "enemies killed". The war did not officially end until July 2, 1976, though. , A 2008 study by the BMJ (formerly British Medical Journal) came up with a higher toll of 3,812,000 dead in Vietnam between 1955–2002. These records were transferred into the custody of the National Archives and Records Administration in 2008. "The Vietnam Wars." "Statistics of Vietnamese Democide", Lines 777–785, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFTurse2013 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFRummel1997 (, Marilyn Young. How Many People Are Killed By Rabies In The US? This led to increased racial tension in the military. , Uppsala University in Sweden maintains the Armed Conflict Database. , Civil rights leaders including Martin Luther King Jr., Malcolm X, John Lewis, Muhammad Ali, and others, criticized the racial disparity in both casualties and representation in the entire military, prompting the Pentagon to order cutbacks in the number of African Americans in combat positions. , Historian Christian Appy states "search and destroy was the principal tactic; and the enemy body count was the primary measure of progress" in the US strategy of attrition. Between October 1966 and June 1969, 246,000 soldiers were recruited through Project 100,000, of whom 41% were Black; Black people only made up about 11% of the population of the US. Rummel calculated PAVN/VC deaths at 1,062,000 and ARVN and allied war deaths of 741,000, with both totals including civilians inadvertently killed. Some have pointed out that the number of lives lost in the Vietnam War has been surpassed by fatalities from COVID-19. This resulted in a dramatic decrease in the proportion of black casualties, and by late 1967, black casualties had fallen to 13%, and were below 10% in 1970 to 1972. All maps, graphics, flags, photos and original descriptions © 2021 worldatlas.com.  Beilke was approaching his 40th birthday and already a master sergeant with nearly 20 years’ service when he got to Vietnam in July, 1972. There are 58,220 deaths attributed to the Vietnam War … " Another Marine commander Gen. Robert E. Cushman Jr. added, "we had a big problem with atrocities attributed to them, which I sent on down to Saigon. , In 1995, the Vietnamese government released its estimate of war deaths for the more lengthy period of 1955–75. These numbers are not official statistics and are for informational purposes only.  30–35% of American deaths in the war were non-combat or friendly fire deaths; the largest causes of death in the U.S. armed forces were small arms fire (31.8%), booby traps including mines and frags (27.4%), and aircraft crashes (14.7%). McNamara claimed this program would provide valuable training, skills and opportunity to America's poor—a promise that was never carried out. The database also estimates combat deaths in Cambodia for the years 1967–75 to total 259,000. the Vietnam War). His estimated total of civilian deaths is 587,000.  The United States government has challenged these figures as being unreliable. During this nearly fifteen year period, approximately 57,000 Americans died in the Vietnam War. Like all wars, this long conflict led to a tragic loss of life. , Agent Orange and similar chemical defoliants have also caused a considerable number of deaths and injuries over the years, including among the US Air Force crew that handled them. During World War II, Japanese troops had driven the French from Vietnam and made Vietnam a …  A separate study by a RAND Corporation employee Terry Rambo conducted interviews in 1970 in ARVN/civilian areas on reported Korean atrocities. For the period of the Vietnam War the totals are 1,310,000 between 1955 and 1964, 1,700,000 between 1965–74 and 810,000 between 1975 and 1984. Some 365,000 Vietnamese civilians are estimated by one source to have died as a result of the war during the period of American involvement.. During 1968, the deadliest year for the U.S. in Vietnam, the death toll of 16,899 occurred … An estimated 47,434 American soldiers were killed in battle during the Vietnam War, which spanned from 1964 to 1975.  It is unclear how the Vietnamese Government figures correlate to other reports of 300–330,000 PAVN/VC missing-in-action from the Vietnam War. [McCaffrey] MEDEVAC helicopters flew nearly 500,000 missions. The Army instigated myriad reforms, addressed issues of discrimination and prejudice from the post exchanges to the lack of black officers, and introduced "Mandatory Watch And Action Committees" into each unit.  According to a study conducted in 1968 by a Quaker-funded Vietnamese-speaking American couple, Diane and Michael Jones, there were at least 12 mass-killings conducted by South Korean forces which approached the scale of the My Lai Massacre with reports of thousands of routine murders on civilians, primarily the elderly, women and children. , The total number of American personnel who were KIA or died non-hostile deaths, were enlisted personnel with a casualty number of 50,441. As for the different branches, 38,224 were in the Army, 14,844 were in the Marine Corps, 2,586 in the Air Force, 2,559 in the Navy, and seven from the Coast Guard. The country was renamed as the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, with the new capital in Hanoi. Once the U.S. started heavily bombing North Vietnam in 1965 though, more demonstrations were organized, including the one by Students for a Democratic Society (SDS). On January 27, 1973, the Paris Peace Agreement was signed. Visiting the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Wall in Washington, D.C., it’s easy to overlook the names of eight women inscribed on the wall’s haunting slabs of black granite. United States military advisers brought in active combat units in 1965; four years later, more than 500,000 U.S. troops were stationed there. In South Vietnam there was the suppression of various sects and their independent armies (line 219), rebellions of minorities (lines 222 to 223), the pre-Vietnam War communist inspired guerrilla war directed by North Vietnam from 1954 through 1959 (lines 227 and 228), and the … Tap this upper portion to remove the keypad. But hey wait, this was not enough. My Lai (4) and My Khe (4) (collectively the My Lai Massacre) claimed the largest number of victims with 420 and 90 respectively, and in five other places altogether about 100 civilians were executed. Between October 1957 and May 1975, there were 3,147 deaths from the state of Pennsylvania in the Vietnam War. After China became a communist nation, fears of communism spreading to other countries became very real. Civilian deaths caused by both sides amounted to a significant percentage of total deaths. , Air force captain, Brian Wilson, who carried out bomb-damage assessments in free-fire zones throughout the delta, saw the results firsthand. From these 58,209 soldiers, 47,424 died in direct armed conflict with the Vietnamese, and 10,785 died due to some other causes. About 645,000 Americans died during the Civil War fought in the U.S. This persuaded many to join the anti-war cause.  Based on unit surveys, a rough estimate of 30–40% of dead and missing were non-combat deaths. According to RJ Rummel, from 1964 to 1975, an estimated 1,500 people died during the forced relocations of 1,200,000 civilians, another 5,000 prisoners died from ill-treatment and about 30,000 suspected communists and fighters were executed. No estimate given for deaths caused by Viet Cong/North Vietnam (1954–75). 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