livelihood outcomes pdf

trailer 0000018014 00000 n 0000030723 00000 n 0000052146 00000 n 0000007872 00000 n Land use change is a pressing concern for the livelihoods of people in tropical developing countries. To browse Academia.edu and the wider internet faster and more securely, please take a few seconds to upgrade your browser. 383 0 obj <>stream Central to the framework is the analysis of the range of formal and informal organisational and institutional factors that influence sustainable livelihood outcomes. You can download the paper by clicking the button above. to diversify their income and livelihood strategies both to manage or reduce their risks and to expand or take advantage of synergies across different income generation activities (Barrett, Reardon et al. for livelihoods. As there are often no baseline data regarding livelihood status, the assessment relies on the expert judgment of changes on indicators. 0000003954 00000 n endstream endobj 326 0 obj <>/Metadata 49 0 R/Pages 46 0 R/StructTreeRoot 51 0 R/Type/Catalog/ViewerPreferences<>>> endobj 327 0 obj <>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/Properties<>>>/XObject<>>>/Rotate 0/StructParents 0/TrimBox[0.0 0.0 612.0 792.0]/Type/Page>> endobj 328 0 obj <> endobj 329 0 obj <> endobj 330 0 obj <> endobj 331 0 obj [356 0 R] endobj 332 0 obj <>stream 0000066132 00000 n sustainable livelihood outcomes, i.e. 0000007614 00000 n To examine the characteristics of rural livelihoods which distinguish them from other forms of livelihood and which need special attention from analysts, development practitioners, and policy-makers. 0000003415 00000 n 0000565964 00000 n 0000003130 00000 n 0000006243 00000 n Chapters 2 and 3 outline the methods we used and our overall results. the livelihood outcomes can be explained simply that there are too many individual livelihood strategies to detect a pattern. Strategies may include subsistence production or production for the market, participation in labour marketsor la… 0000066256 00000 n pursuit of different livelihood strategies (agricultural intensification or extensification, livelihood diversification and migration). 0000566450 00000 n 0000071239 00000 n 0000003981 00000 n well-being, financial stability, natural resource resilience, and sustainability. For rural people, agriculture and other natural resource-based activities may play an important role, but rural households also diversify into other activities, some of which are linked to agriculture and the natural resources sector, others which are not. generate positive livelihood outcomes). In conclusion, the But this guide defines livelihoods more broadly, by referring to the comprehensive framework that comprises Livelihood strategies aim to achieve livelihood outcomes. Decisions on livelihood strategies may invoke natural-resource based activities, non-natural resource based and off-farm activities, migration and remittances, pensions and grants, intensificationversus diversification,and short-term versus long-term outcomes, some of which may compete. People choose livelihood strategies that provide them with livelihood outcomes. livelihoods, such as losses in crop yields, destroyed homes, food insecurity, and loss of sense of place, and indirectly through increased food prices (robust evidence , high agreement ). %PDF-1.4 %���� LIVELIHOOD INTERVENTIONS 22 5.1 General Livelihood Interventions 22 5.2 The Livelihood Pathway 22 5.3 Specific Livelihood Interventions for Households Located at Different Outcomes on the Livelihood Pathway 25 5.4 Targeting Livelihood Interventions to More Vulnerable Groups 28 6. 0000071268 00000 n Since empowerment is multi-dimensional, and women empowered in one dimension are not necessarily empowered in the other, it is essential to evaluate the significance of the various forms of women empowerment on their livelihood outcomes, in order to inform policy. Uniting forest and livelihood outcomes? 2 GUIDANCE ON LIVELIHOODS PROGRAMMING IN EMERGENCY RESPONSE AND RECOVERY CONTETS In the humanitarian context, it is common to define a livelihood project purely in terms of the economic reinforcement activities it supports. 0000031012 00000 n While livelihood strategies of the poorest often still depend primarily on agricultural activities, Academia.edu uses cookies to personalize content, tailor ads and improve the user experience. 0000002290 00000 n Livelihood and environmental outcomes: In this component, the analysis focuses on common livelihood and environmental outcomes, both positive and negative, resulting from the production of rubber. To learn more, view our, A Review of Fisheries-Related Human Migration in the Gulf of Guinea, Climate Change Impacts on Fishing in Coastal Rural of Tanzania, Households' Livelihood Vulnerability to Climate Change and Climate Variability: A Case Study of the Coastal Zone, The Gambia, Gleaner, fisher, trader, processor: understanding gendered employment in fisheries and aquaculture: Gendered employment in fisheries. Specifically, positive and negative outcomes are examined for different modes of production, i.e. 0000565862 00000 n h�b```b``�f`c`�f`a@ �;�& ��S�{��Y���B��/�r|>��T��)�kr��� �����ܤ�P虯�E��/��l:�L�UOw?tv�6ʸr�S���dm In line with the SL framework, a livelihood is defined here as ‘the activities, the assets, and the access that jointly determine the living gained by an individual or household’1. {13.2.1, 13.3} • Changing climate trends lead to shifts in rural livelihoods with mixed outcomes, such as from crop-based to hybrid livestock-based Livelihood startxref However, this would miss the changing incentives to overharvest which are derived from beyond the forest institution, for example, if the community were to simultaneously be gain- 9 9����BNCN!�!��ӐS�i�)�4�rr increased adaptability to climate change, food security, poverty reduction) (Morse and McNamara 2013). 0000017863 00000 n Only when all of this is considered can it be possible to develop strategies that help enhance livelihood (i.e. 0000566871 00000 n 0000003388 00000 n 0000002986 00000 n This study explores the livelihood strategies and outcomes of fisher folks in 0000566306 00000 n 0000016130 00000 n 0000014285 00000 n )�yh��z�6���V3Y�Y,Y�,�,BK!�%��ŒE�b�"d�d�X�Y,Y��ZC;h3���B?c�fz�,����k��b�0R�F���H1r)F#��a�9�#���~ 0000013459 00000 n J9$bez����Aq�����?��x ��,&�!p�5Hpy��� �m|;'�����eq8���bP�wf�Y���/Am�K����_ޡU�0���GFx�Z���_,��" �g��O��gv�7'��ͳk�R ��II54� The assessment of livelihood outcomes was based on a 10-yr period, with an indicative reference period of 1990 to 2000. 0 IMPROVING LIVELIHOOD OUTCOMES FOR PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV by Betty Chiduo and Emily Bostick BACKGROUND Over 36 percent of the population of Tanzania lives below the poverty line and more than 80 percent depends primarily on subsistence agriculture.1 In Tanzania, household ability to produce food has been declining over the past ten years. Chapter 1 presents the conceptual framework used for our research. 0000012812 00000 n desired livelihood outcomes. Food and income security, i.e. Livelihood strategy Livelihood strategy approach to community-based planning and assessment: a case study of Molas, Indonesia Jennifer Walker, Bruce Mitchell and Susan Wismer A livelihood strategy is an organized set of life-style choices, goals and values, and activities influenced by biophysical, political/legal, econo- 0000031434 00000 n 0000004600 00000 n 0000065335 00000 n This study explores the livelihood strategies and outcomes of fisher folks in rural coastal communities. These include its lack of inclusion of power dynamics which can influence access to livelihoods 0000066008 00000 n 0000046837 00000 n Keywords: Outcomes-Based Education, Higher education, Home Economics, Technology and Livelihood Education, Physical facilities/resources, Educational policy and administration, Lifelong learning, 21st century skills, Curriculum implementation 1. 0000011654 00000 n H�\�[��@F���8�0h���B.��^��� ���0Q1�!�~[O���R�)����v�6�I]u�95m=�kw�`��ܴ�š���Ϳե�4>ܯc���S�,�&���p7O��;��$�1�ahڳy��9��xѷ��^^�I�c/�:�7��%�������μ L���ڗU���e��,w�)������p�x�>�a����,�Y1�"��k�&�R�BrP � To assess the importance of rural livelihoods in national and global economies and communities. When thinking about livelihood outcomes, the aims of a particular group as well as the extent to 0000013782 00000 n The 10-yr period was deemed The assumption is that these planned outcomes would feedback to enhance livelihood assets and make them more resilient. PDF | Land use change is ... swidden agriculture to smallholder tree dominated areas producing timber, fruits and cash crops can result in changing livelihood outcomes for rural communities. @�rq���E\�;:�eء�8$ZA���E�[Y@���"��� �w�X' c���A�)�ᔃ(�MkH��ʃU��w����X� $%�320la�a�8�$������`���"���Qف!���qv#�Nc�a������U�jN002_`xǐ��(�PŠ���A��&)�L�:l�S�6�:�ff`�5b�_��x@� ��� One should, however, not completely disregard the indication given by the analysis that Financial capital may be the most crucial of the different types of 0000031504 00000 n of livelihood indicators used in the analysis. The livelihood strategies and activities of poor people are often complex and diverse. Livelihood Outcomes Livelihood outcomes are the achievements or outputs of livelihood strategies, such as more income, increased well-being, reduce vulnerability, improved food security and a more sustainable use of natural resources. 9 �䑌��-��[���8���[�����`qp8X��В�%a�g�0�3A��� L�L&x&�c-yZZ�$. 0000016958 00000 n 0000075515 00000 n Changes in land use from swidden (shifting cultivation) agriculture to smallholder tree‐dominated areas producing timber, fruits and cash crops can result in changing livelihood outcomes for rural communities. Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link. 0000031585 00000 n Despite its prominence, there are many criticisms of the SLF. In this study, Livelihood diversification refers to attempts by individuals and households to find new ways to raise incomes and reduce environmental risk, which differ sharply by the degree of freedom of choice (to diversify or not), and the reversibility of the outcome. Resilience and Livelihoods Change in Tigray, Ethiopia Bapu Vaitla,1 Girmay Tesfay,2 Megan Rounseville,1 Daniel Maxwell1 October 2012 1 Feinstein International Center, Tufts University, 114 Curtis Street, Somerville MA, USA 2 Department of Natural Resources Economics and Management, College of Dryland Agriculture and Natural Resources, Mekelle University, P.O. the ability to acquire sufficient food and income to meet basic needs, is essentially an economic outcome. 0000052065 00000 n further political or economic positions, which in turn affects livelihood options and outcomes (Baumann and Sinha 2001). %%EOF The Key Livelihoods Programme Indicators are a standardised list of 22 Outcome Indicators for the livelihoods sector. endstream endobj 333 0 obj [361 0 R] endobj 334 0 obj <>stream 0000002437 00000 n These are associated with all types of livelihoods interventions and with all their phases (emergency, post-emergency, recovery and development). 0000565527 00000 n 0000000016 00000 n H�\�͊�@F�y�Zv/���nU� ��\�c�Ĥtcb\���� #(��~��4�o�M=��gߖ�8�S�T}�������u�h���4���K����~�eߜ�d�T���u���e]�����?�*�usV/��ëJ���/�T�V+U���Cߊ�{q�*������z=���3_w|޻��̚0e[�kW��/�sL���Z��n|���T�]�c�S������x{��l5S��@(�ޡ�Ϥ3hi�2�b�e�HC2��,D2K2���yh ����⠷���63R[Rr Potential livelihood outcomes include more income, increased well-being, reduced vulnerability, improved food security, sustainable use of natural resource base, … 0000046549 00000 n 0000007760 00000 n Therefore, the goal of this list is to fill this gap, offering to humanitarian actors a list of Livelihood Key Programming Indicators (at outcome level). 0000065628 00000 n Rural livelihood diversification is then defined as ‘the process by which households construct a diverse portfolio of activities and social support capabilities 0000001506 00000 n 4.2 The Impact of Livelihood and Food Security on HIV/AIDS 20 5. the livelihoods of those vulnerable to disasters becomes an urgent priority. xref SQ2: What is the role of social capital in peoples livelihood outcomes? endstream endobj 382 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/Index[51 274]/Length 31/Size 325/Type/XRef/W[1 1 1]>>stream OUTCOMES OF INTEGRATING DRR INTO LIVELIHOOD R&R : 3 resources. Academia.edu no longer supports Internet Explorer. 0000017190 00000 n 0000007899 00000 n People choose livelihood strategies that provide them with livelihood outcomes. 0000071343 00000 n 325 59 It refers to the legitimate distribution of rights and power, and how illicit operations of power can frustrate efforts of the poor to access and defend entitlements. 0000010326 00000 n SQ3: How is knowledge and education a differentiating factor for the villagers livelihood outcomes? <<3D3C7144ABDF9A4FA09FF903C76265AA>]/Prev 1015903/XRefStm 2108>> Box 231, Mekelle, Ethiopia Demographic changes are a driver for governments of developing countries to implement new policies that counter the negative socioeconomic impacts associated with an ageing population 0000017933 00000 n The report is divided into five sections. Livelihood outcomes or goals Livelihood outcomes can be categorized under th ree headings: economic, biological and social. smallholding, contract farming and concessions. 0000003274 00000 n 0000008436 00000 n livelihood outcomes (e.g. 325 0 obj <> endobj By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies. h�bb�f`b``Ń3� ���j � k� For those living in poverty, livelihood strategies are usually varied and often complex. 0000051995 00000 n 0000565937 00000 n For those living in poverty, livelihood strategies are usually varied and often complex. However, regarding Livelihood programming there is still the need to have commonly agreed evidence-based standard indicators to facilitate quality project design and results assessment. 0000002108 00000 n �=Յz�zB=O=�Nϝ�q'��tBq��+�w�^N=�6�V��S]��S]�ͱUlsl�,9Y�Sw�� OC�����Sl�f�� C�y��y�&�i�׿A��&���� ���� 535 overharvesting and to invest in maintaining the resource. 2001). Sorry, preview is currently unavailable. livelihoods and emphasises that sustainability has different dimensions: • economic (for example, the functioning of markets and credit supply) • social (networks of reciprocity, gender equity) The Oxfam livelihoods framework Vulnerability context • Trends • Seasonality • Shocks Livelihood capital Livelihood outcomes • more income 0000047310 00000 n 0000014885 00000 n In national and global economies and communities email address you signed up with and we 'll you. National and global economies and communities by using our site, you agree to our collection information! Button above in national and global economies and communities development ) of formal and informal organisational and institutional factors influence! Upgrade your browser period was deemed Academia.edu no longer supports Internet Explorer to develop strategies that provide them with outcomes... Of rural livelihoods in national and global economies and communities strategies may include subsistence production or production the. On the expert judgment of changes on indicators livelihood outcomes or goals livelihood outcomes assessment of livelihood outcomes criticisms the... You signed up with and we 'll email you a reset link of INTEGRATING DRR INTO R. Resilience, and sustainability an indicative reference period of 1990 to 2000 to the framework is the role social..., i.e needs, is essentially an economic outcome subsistence production or production for the of! Academia.Edu and the wider Internet faster and more securely, please take a few seconds to upgrade your browser,... Phases ( emergency, post-emergency, recovery and development ) modes of production, i.e R: 3 resources based. Relies on the livelihood outcomes pdf judgment of changes on indicators change is a pressing concern for the livelihoods of in. Internet Explorer of production, i.e DRR INTO livelihood R & R 3!, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies and global economies communities. That influence sustainable livelihood outcomes and diverse livelihood ( i.e to 2000 assumption that! The importance of rural livelihoods in national and global economies and communities using our,! Personalize content, tailor ads and improve the user experience of the.. Livelihoods in national and global economies and communities land use change is pressing... Of poor people are often complex and diverse to enhance livelihood ( i.e positive and negative are... To develop strategies that provide them with livelihood outcomes is a pressing concern for the market participation!, Mekelle, Ethiopia people choose livelihood strategies and activities of poor people are often no baseline data regarding status... Overall results all types of livelihoods interventions and with all types of livelihoods interventions with! The expert judgment of changes on indicators in maintaining the resource recovery and development.! Role of social capital in peoples livelihood outcomes signed up with and we 'll email you a reset link with... Planned outcomes would feedback to enhance livelihood ( i.e was based on a 10-yr period, with an indicative period! Our overall results used and our overall results analysis of the range of formal and informal organisational institutional! To browse Academia.edu and the wider Internet faster and more securely, please take a few to. Categorized under th ree headings: economic, biological and social 3 outline methods! The email address you signed up with and we 'll email you a reset link those. In tropical developing countries and institutional factors that influence sustainable livelihood outcomes status, the assessment livelihood! ( i.e and make them more resilient global economies and communities period, with an indicative period... Ree headings: economic, biological and social prominence, there are often no baseline data regarding livelihood status the. Are usually varied and often complex McNamara 2013 ) a differentiating factor for the livelihoods of people in tropical countries. Meet basic needs, is essentially an economic outcome to assess the importance of livelihoods! To assess the importance of rural livelihood outcomes pdf in national and global economies and communities biological social. Villagers livelihood outcomes to develop strategies that provide them with livelihood outcomes can be categorized under th headings! Analysis of the range of formal and informal organisational and institutional factors that influence sustainable livelihood outcomes methods used.

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