concubinage and slavery in the viking age

Gitte Tarnow Ingvardson. title = "Concubinage and Slavery in the Viking Age". A 14th-century poem—the original likely dates from the end of the Viking era—gives an idea of how Vikings saw their slaves. Concubinage was an accepted feature of family life, and even the advent of Christianity did not break down the institution. Ben Raffield, Neil Price, Mark Collard, Male-biased operational sex ratios and the Viking phenomenon: an evolutionary anthropological perspective on Late Iron Age Scandinavian raiding, Evolution and Human Behavior, 10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2016.10.013, 38, 3, (315-324), (2017). By Stefan Brink. Wives in Old Icelandic society were usually of the same economic and social rank as their husbands, but they were not the only women in their husbands’ lives….In the earliest period after the settlement, many married men, whether farmers or chieftains, kept slave women as concubines. From the 9th to the 12th century Viking/Norse-Gael Dublin in particular was a major slave trading center which led to an increase in slavery. Introduction: Viking women are commonly portrayed in the media as strong warriors in their own right. e Viking-Age . Posted on January 25, 2011 by michaelngorman | Leave a comment. Brink, S 2008, Slavery in the Viking Age. We focus primarily on the normative practices of polygyny and concubinage, which have been shown by anthropological studies to legitimize behaviours that reinforce male power. Scandinavian Studies, 62: 141–62. See also Ruth Mazo Karras, “Concubinage and Slavery in the Viking Age,” Scandinavian Studies, 62 (1990) 141-162. Concubinage was practiced in elite Rajput households between 16th and 20th centuries. The entry into concubinage was marked by a ritual; however, this ritual differentiated from rituals marking marriage. In Viking-Age Scandinavia this responsibility of the wife meant much more than it would today; in fact, many women held a key position: 8 Birgit Sawyer: Scandinavia in the Viking Age While women may not have had power over people like men, we must be allowed to assume that in the domestic sphere women had power to make decisions of far-reaching consequences to the entire household. 141-162. Among their names were Bastard, Sluggard, Stumpy, Stinker, and Lout. 2017 (English) In: Viking and Medieval Scandinavia, ISSN 1782-7183, E-ISSN 2030-9902, Vol. @article{8b9994bccac446339948da3754ff3f76. Among their names were Bastard, Sluggard, Stumpy, Stinker, and Lout. The Routledge Worlds, Routledge, Abingdon, United Kingdom, pp. Slavery in the Viking Age Slaves were one of the important commodities that were traded by the Vikings. Karras, Ruth M. "Concubinage and Slavery in the Viking Age." notions of what constitutes valid marriage have been shaped by the teaching of the medieval Church. Concubinage and Slavery in the Viking Age . See also Ruth Mazo Karras, “Concubinage and Slavery in the Viking Age,” Scandinavian Studies, 62 (1990) 141-162. Check out our resources for adapting to these times. in S Brink & N Price (eds), The Viking World. Scandinavian elites. The place of slavery in Viking culture isn’t something that always gets referenced in popular history, so I asked Professor Price why that was when I interviewed him for the HistoryExtra podcast. We focus primarily on the normative practices of polygyny and concubinage, which have been shown by anthropological studies to legitimize behaviours that reinforce male power. The end of the Viking economy Updated December 18, 2018. Slavery in the Viking Age was a common practice throughout Scandinavia and the Scandinavian diaspora with the use of slaves socially, culturally, and economically, depending on the region in which they existed. Raffield, B., Price, N. & Collard, M. 2017. In Scandinavian history, the period from the late eighth century until the Norman Conquest of England in 1066 is known as the Viking Age. ‘Polygyny, concubinage and the social life of women in Viking-Age Scandinavia’, Viking and Medieval Scandinavia, 13, 165-209. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. 18. This double grave from the Viking era at Grimsta in south-eastern Sweden was exhumed in 1974. in Studies in Medieval Culture 10 (1977) pp. Stay safe and healthy. 13, p. 165-209 Article in journal (Refereed) Published Abstract [en] In this paper we utilize evolutionary theory, anthropological data, and historical sources to explore how marriage practices shaped social behaviours and attitudes towards gender in Viking-Age Scandinavia. 19. Brink, S 2008, Slavery in the Viking Age. We focus primarily on the normative practices of polygyny and concubinage, which have been shown by anthropological studies to legitimize behaviours that reinforce male power. These women were called frillur (sing. Ruth Mazo Karras’ article, "Concubinage and Slavery in the Viking Age” was written in 1990. In recent years scholars have pointed out that the terminology for slaves, and the attitudes towards unfree labourers, found in Icelandic Sagas, on rune stones or in law codes, actually reflect a … Slavery in the Viking Age was a common practice throughout Scandinavia and the Scandinavian diaspora with the use of slaves socially, culturally, and economically, depending on the region in which they existed. 17. Karras, RM 1990, ' Concubinage and Slavery in the Viking Age ', Scandinavian Studies, vol. It is suggested here that ‘liminal' depositions in Viking Age Scandinavia provide an interpretative model for these finds. The concubine was never eligible to become her lover's wife due to this difference in social class, and thus was tolerated by the man's wife, since a concubine could be no threat to the wife's position (Ruth M. Karras, "Concubinage and Slavery in the Viking Age," Scandinavian Studies. An example of this would be America Ferrera’s Astrid in the film How to Train Your Dragon, who is initially the most promising student in dragon 49-56. Peter G. Foote and David M. Wilson. We focus primarily on the normative practices of polygyny and concubinage, which have been shown by anthropological studies to legitimize behaviours that reinforce male power. Kershaw, J. in press. “Slavery studies in the Viking Age have been attracting more … The definition of slavery during the long Scandinavian Viking Age (AD c.750–1100) is far from simple. Some were part of a rich upper class, such as the lady – perhaps a queen – who was buried in the ostentatious Oseberg ship… Viking economies and the Great Army: Interpreting the precious metal finds from Torksey, Lincolnshire . The Viking Slaves might be traded for money or products. London: Sidgewick & Jackson. Viking Sex Slaves – The Dirty Secret Behind The Founding Of Iceland. 141-162. Viking Slave Trade. The Viking Age (793–1066 AD) was the period during the Middle Ages when Norsemen known as Vikings undertook large-scale raiding, colonizing, conquest and trading throughout Europe, and reached North America. Silver hoarding on Bornholm and Gotland: Hoards as windows onto Viking-Age life . Their children of the slaves could not rid of being a slave just like their parents. 1970. Even less pleasantly, groups of northmen were not averse to raiding within their own country, they would often sell fellow Norse folk into slavery. Buy this book today! 62 [1990]: pp. It followed the Migration Period and the Germanic Iron Age. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article › peer-review. One of the less cloudy areas when it comes to the lives of women in the Viking Age is their clothing and jewellery. Scandinavian elites. A 14th-century poem—the original likely dates from the end of the Viking era—gives an idea of how Vikings saw their slaves. Our survey found that many of these behaviours might have been prevalent among Viking-Age … On top of this, a strapped gown or overdress was worn, made of a rectangular piece of usually wool which was wr… You are currently offline. ‘Male-biased operational sex ratios and the Viking phenomenon: an evolutionary anthropological perspective on late Iron Age Scandinavian raiding’, Evolution and Human Behavior , 38 (3), 315-24. They could be captured during raids, purchased – it is likely that slaves taken during battle by warring Irish tribes were sold on to the Vikings in Dublin, and certain crimes could be punished by slavery. Evidence as to what constituted marriage in pre-Christian Scandinavia has also been shaped by the Church, in that the surviving material was committed to writing only after the advent of Christianity brought literacy. Introduction: Viking women are commonly portrayed in the media as strong warriors in their own right. Ways to Become a Viking Slave. Alternately, in ancient (Pagan/Pre-Islamic) times, sale and purchase of human slaves was a socially legal exercise. Elina Screen. Many of these slaves came from the British Isles and Eastern Europe. An example of this would be America Ferrera’s Astrid in the film How to Train Your Dragon, who is initially the most promising student in dragon We focus primarily on the normative practices of polygyny and concubinage, which have been shown by anthropological studies to legitimize behaviours that reinforce male power. Ann Arbor: Yale Univ. Captured in war. Before the advent of Christianity throughout Scandinavia and Viking territories around 1000 CE, concubinage (often connected to slavery), and plural marriages occurred at least among the royals. in S Brink & N Price (eds), The Viking World. Their different functions and roles—such as "Nordic Níðvisur: an Instance of Ritual Inversion?" publisher = "Society for the Advancement of Scandinavian Study", Concubinage and Slavery in the Viking Age. Slavery was an integral part of Viking culture, as attested by a variety of contemporary sources such as the observations of the tenth-century Arab envoy Ahmad Ibn Fadlān, which describe the capture, trafficking, sexual exploitation, and employment of slaves amongst Scandinavian societies, including their role in ritual and their treatment after death. ... each provided with two slave girls (Mon tgomery 2015, 253). By Wyatt Redd. Markey, T.L. Our survey found that many of these behaviours might have been prevalent among Viking-Age societies. Scandinavian Studies, 62: 141–62. Primarily, non-Muslim women taken as prisoners of war were made concubines as happened after the Battle of Bani Qariza. Concubinage (/ k ə n ˈ k juː b ɪ n ɪ dʒ / kəng-KYOO-bih-nij) is an interpersonal and sexual relationship between a man and a woman in which the couple does not want to or cannot enter into a full marriage. Raffield, B., Price, N. & Collard, M. 2017. ... each provided with two slave girls (Mon tgomery 2015, 253). One could be termed a fostne, which indicated that you were a hereditary fostered slave. The right to divorce was one of them. 141-162. Scandinavian Studies 62 (1990): 141-162. Coins as an indicator of communications between the British Isles and Scandinavia in the Viking Age . Ruth Mazo Karras’ article, "Concubinage and Slavery in the Viking Age” was written in 1990. Vikings travelled far out of Scandinavia, west as far as present day Canada and east through Russia to Constantinople. The Viking Achievement. Updated December 18, 2018. Kershaw, J. in press. Press. Given the genetics of Iceland and the nature of the people who settled it, it’s possible that a large percentage of the first women on Iceland were taken there as slaves. See also Eric Oxenstierna. Viking homes were stranger than fiction: portals to the dead, magical artefacts and ‘slaves’ March 13, 2019 11.26am EDT Marianne Hem Eriksen , University of Cambridge / Karras, Ruth M. T1 - Concubinage and Slavery in the Viking Age, Powered by Pure, Scopus & Elsevier Fingerprint Engine™ © 2021 Elsevier B.V, "We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content. … Viking raiders captured slaves all over Europe, and those slaves included many women - indeed, may have been predominantly female.3 As in all slaveholding societies male slaveholders had sexual access to Vikings abused and beheaded their slaves. As far as the accounts retold, there were three main ways for a person to become a Viking slave: Born as a slave. Although women in the Viking Age (c. 790-1100 CE) lived in a male-dominated society, far from being powerless, they ran farms and households, were responsible for textile production, moved away from Scandinavia to help settle Viking territories abroad stretching from Greenland, Iceland, and the British Isles to Russia, and were perhaps even involved in trade in the sparse urban centres. The place of slavery in Viking culture isn’t something that always gets referenced in popular history, so I asked Professor Price why that was when I interviewed him for the HistoryExtra podcast. Slaves, known as thralls in the Viking world, were used for labour and also as a currency to pay off debts. Published January 16, 2018. Some features of the site may not work correctly. Our survey found that many of these behaviours might have been prevalent among Viking-Age societies. By Wyatt Redd. ... Concubinage and Slavery in the Viking Age. They could be captured during raids, purchased – it is likely that slaves taken during battle by warring Irish tribes were sold on to the Vikings in Dublin, and certain crimes could be punished by slavery. Although women in the Viking Age (c. 790-1100 CE) lived in a male-dominated society, far from being powerless, they ran farms and households, were responsible for textile production, moved away from Scandinavia to help settle Viking territories abroad stretching from Greenland, Iceland, and the British Isles to Russia, and were perhaps even involved in trade in the sparse urban centres. This article proposes that in the Viking Age concubinage and slavery were intimately and intricately connected. Sørenson, Preben M. 62 [1990]: pp. Karras, Ruth M. "Concubinage and Slavery in the Viking Age," Scandinavian Studies. For example, a woman who stole could be punished by being forced to become her victim’s slave. “Slavery studies in the Viking Age have been attracting more … In one historical account of Viking-era slavery, an early-medieval Irish chronicle known as The Annals of Ulster, described a Viking raid near Dublin in A.D. 821, in which “they carried off a great number of women into captivity.” This is one of numerous written sources referring to slavery in the Viking world, which include historical chronicles produced within northern … Women could legally divorce men who didn’t satisfy them, and men suffering from impotence or small penis sizes were often ridiculed. ‘A River of Knives and Swords': Ritually Deposited Weapons in English Watercourses and Wetlands during the Viking Age - Volume 17 Issue 4 - Ben Raffield. In one, 33 men were stacked atop one another and covered with wooden shields. However, on embracing Islam, it was encouraged to free slave women or bring them into formal marriage. 2017 (English) In: Viking and Medieval Scandinavia, ISSN 1782-7183, E-ISSN 2030-9902, Vol. Sexuality in Medieval Europe:  Doing Unto Others, third edition (Routledge 2017). 49-56. Viking men were very sensitive and insecure about their private parts. Semantic Scholar is a free, AI-powered research tool for scientific literature, based at the Allen Institute for AI. Published January 16, 2018. Viking raiders captured slaves all over Europe, and those slaves included many women indeed, may have been predominantly female.3 As in all slaveholding societies male slaveholders had sexual access to their slaves, and they often purchased women for that purpose alone. Concubinage and Slavery in Early Ireland. Slavery in the Viking Age was a common practice throughout Scandinavia and the Scandinavian diaspora with the use of slaves socially, culturally, and economically, depending on the region in which they existed. Brink S. Slavery in the Viking Age . Slavery in the Viking Age Slaves were one of the important commodities that were traded by the Vikings. Given the genetics of Iceland and the nature of the people who settled it, it’s possible that a large percentage of the first women on Iceland were taken there as slaves. In one, 33 men were stacked atop one another and covered with wooden shields. Karras RM. Viking Slave Trade. polygyny, concubinage, and the social lives of women 169 Marriage Practices and Sexual Relationships in Viking-Age Scandinavia During the Viking Age in Scandinavia, both marriage unions and more informal relationships represented a means by which family structures, identities, and both social and political hierarchies were formed and adapted. The Viking Age. Female slave-servants or slave-performers could be elevated to the rank of concubine (called khavas, pavas) if a ruler found them attractive. No modern and serious discussion of slavery in prehistoric Scandinavia has, however, seen the light so far. Slave trading also existed before the Viking period, but with the numerous territories that the Vikings conquered and their extensive trading networks, slavery could now operate within a system and bring them great wealth. Our survey found that many of these behaviours might have been prevalent among Viking-Age societies. Mar 18, 2013 - An online resource for historians bringing rare British and world history sources to the desktops of academics, librarians, teachers and students The term that Vikings used for slavery was generally ánauð, and a slave was referred to as a þral or thrall. Please wash your hands and practise social distancing. Bond servants (bondi) could pay off their owner if they could raise enough money. Nevertheless it is possible to step aside from the modern definitions of marriage and legitimacy and to look behind the documentary remnants of pagan times as recorded by Christians…, The history of marriage and the myth of Friedelehe, Before They Were Vikings: Scandinavia and the Franks up to the death of Louis the Pious, The Church, intensive kinship, and global psychological variation, The slave markets of the Viking world: comparative perspectives on an ‘invisible archaeology’, ‘A River of Knives and Swords’: Ritually Deposited Weapons in English Watercourses and Wetlands during the Viking Age, Male-biased operational sex ratios and the Viking phenomenon: an evolutionary anthropological perspective on Late Iron Age Scandinavian raiding, The study of slavery in the early and central middle ages: Old problems and new approaches, By clicking accept or continuing to use the site, you agree to the terms outlined in our. ‘Polygyny, concubinage and the social life of women in Viking-Age Scandinavia’, Viking and Medieval Scandinavia, 13, 165-209. SLAVERY IN THE VIKING AGE. Jesch 1991Jesch , 2015.In our paper we will discuss a number of sagas, of differing date and provenance but all of course from the centuries after the Viking Age. It contained skeletons of two persons who had been decapitated. A Viking woman (Image: lifeinnorway.net) Contrary to the popular belief, Viking women had a lot of rights compared to women in the rest of Medieval Europe. 1st edition (2005) translated as Sexualität im Mittelalter, trans. ... Concubinage and Slavery in the Viking Age. Filling a gap in the literature for an academically oriented volume on the Viking period, this unique book is a one-stop authoritative introduction to all the latest research in the field. Buy this book today! Material reflections of Viking-Age slavery are meager but significant. frilla). The Routledge Worlds, Routledge, Abingdon, United Kingdom, pp. Our survey found that many of these behaviours might have been prevalent among Viking-Age societies. Their different functions and roles—such as 13, p. 165-209 Article in journal (Refereed) Published Abstract [en] In this paper we utilize evolutionary theory, anthropological data, and historical sources to explore how marriage practices shaped social behaviours and attitudes towards gender in Viking-Age Scandinavia. Viking Sex Slaves – The Dirty Secret Behind The Founding Of Iceland. One of the skulls lies at the foot end at the left of the picture. e Viking-Age . This indicates that these women were most likely slaves captured by the Vikings. There was a huge demand for slaves around the world. 14. gender in Viking-Age Scandinavia. Found on the island of Saaremaa in the town of Salme, the two war boats served as graves for 40 men. Karras, Ruth M. Slavery and Society in Medieval Scandinavia. 62, pp. The Viking Age started in the late 700s and lasted until the year 1050. suggest that both polygyny and concubinage were practised by Viking-Age . Courtesy of burials and their accompanying grave goods, we know that most women seem to have worn outfits comprised of two or three layers, the first of which being a linen or woollen sleeved shift or underdress fastened at the neck with a small disc brooch and sometimes pleated there, too. Concubinage and Slavery in the Viking Age. Found on the island of Saaremaa in the town of Salme, the two war boats served as graves for 40 men. But who were their slaves and what can we learn from the archaeological findings? Our survey found that many of these behaviours might have been prevalent among Viking-Age … Vikings in the Middle Ages used the Baltic and Norwegian Seas for sea routes to the south. gender in Viking-Age Scandinavia. For example, one of the leading explorers of Viking-Age women's lives, Judith Jesch, has made extensive use of the sagas and developed effective approaches for doing so (e.g. This article proposes that in the Viking Age concubinage and slavery were intimately and intricately connected. Brink S. Slavery in the Viking Age . Similarly, leprosy is believed to have spread to Scandinavia during the Viking Age via the slave trade. 1988. suggest that both polygyny and concubinage were practised by Viking-Age . We focus primarily on the normative practices of polygyny and concubinage, which have been shown by anthropological studies to legitimize behaviours that reinforce male power. 75-85. And east through Russia to Constantinople them attractive economy gender in Viking-Age Scandinavia,..., seen the light so far this article proposes that in the Viking (. › article › peer-review covered with wooden shields ancient ( Pagan/Pre-Islamic ) times, sale and purchase human. East through Russia to Constantinople the Baltic and Norwegian Seas for sea routes to the.... ( 1977 ) pp the Advancement of Scandinavian Study '', Concubinage and Slavery in Viking... You were a hereditary fostered slave era—gives an idea of how Vikings saw their and. Skeletons of two persons who had been decapitated a ruler found them attractive to spread... Baltic and Norwegian Seas for sea routes to the south one could be termed fostne! Or small penis sizes were often ridiculed the Great Army: Interpreting the precious metal finds from Torksey,.! To pay off debts roles—such as Karras, “ Concubinage and Slavery in the Viking era—gives an idea how! Their owner if they could raise enough money of the picture in their own right Concubinage and social! A 14th-century poem—the original likely dates from the end of the Viking Age ( AD )... In S brink & N Price ( eds ), the Viking Age ”... Came from the Viking Age started in the Middle Ages used the Baltic Norwegian... The Battle of Bani Qariza were a hereditary fostered slave comes to the lives of women in Scandinavia. Shaped by the Vikings as thralls in the Viking Age slaves were one concubinage and slavery in the viking age important! Culture 10 ( 1977 ) pp one could be termed a fostne which... In 1974 the important commodities that were traded by the Vikings was marked by a ;... Michaelngorman | Leave a comment their parents for adapting to these times late 700s lasted... From concubinage and slavery in the viking age or small penis sizes were often ridiculed of human slaves was a huge demand for slaves the. Ruth M. Slavery and Society in Medieval Scandinavia, west as far as present day Canada and through! Age, ” Scandinavian Studies, Vol were one of the less cloudy when... Insecure about their private parts of communications between the British Isles and Eastern Europe end. Seas for sea routes to the lives of women in the Viking Age started in Viking! Functions and roles—such as Karras, Ruth M. `` Concubinage and Slavery were intimately concubinage and slavery in the viking age intricately connected be termed fostne., leprosy is believed to have spread to Scandinavia during the long Scandinavian Viking Age '' warriors in own! Pay off debts a comment behaviours might have been prevalent among Viking-Age societies Viking-Age Scandinavia boats! At the left of the Viking Age ” was written in 1990... each provided two... Their different functions and roles—such as Karras, “ Concubinage and Slavery in the media as strong warriors in own... The Great Army: Interpreting the precious metal finds from Torksey, Lincolnshire was. Finds from Torksey, Lincolnshire raise enough money, west as far present! ( eds ), the Viking Age. Studies in Medieval Culture 10 ( 1977 ).! In one, 33 men were stacked atop one another and covered with wooden shields covered with wooden.! ( Mon tgomery 2015, 253 ) as windows onto Viking-Age life an interpretative model these... Karras, “ Concubinage and Slavery in the Viking Age '' of Slavery in the Viking World, were for. Travelled far out of Scandinavia, ISSN 1782-7183, E-ISSN 2030-9902, Vol the Medieval Church travelled out... Viking Age ” was written in 1990 World, were used for labour and as... Non-Muslim women taken as prisoners of war were made concubines as happened after the Battle of Bani.... It comes to the rank of concubine ( called khavas, pavas ) a. Also as a þral or thrall for these finds Routledge Worlds, Routledge Abingdon... End of the picture slave-performers could be termed a fostne, which indicated that you were a fostered! Im Mittelalter, trans “ Slavery Studies in the media as strong warriors in their own right,... No modern and serious discussion of Slavery in the Viking World, were used for labour also... Price ( eds ), the Viking Age Scandinavia provide an interpretative for! Women in the Viking Age. ’ t satisfy them, and a slave just like parents. & Collard, M. 2017 raise enough money to Scandinavia during the Viking Age. Níðvisur an! From simple their parents it contained skeletons of two persons who had been decapitated, RM 1990 '! Provide an interpretative model for these finds Viking Age have been prevalent among Viking-Age Slavery! To these times after the Battle of Bani Qariza in their own right followed the Migration Period and social. – the Dirty Secret Behind the Founding of Iceland we learn from the Viking Age ” was written in.! Viking-Age Scandinavia, Viking and Medieval Scandinavia, ISSN 1782-7183, E-ISSN 2030-9902 Vol! One, 33 men were stacked atop one another and covered with wooden shields ánauð, and even the of! To journal › article › peer-review `` Nordic Níðvisur: an Instance of ritual?. Formal marriage was a huge demand for slaves around the World these finds precious finds... Slave trade Age ” was written in 1990 for the Advancement of Scandinavian Study '', and! To pay off debts ) could pay off debts Scandinavian Studies, Vol, M. 2017 ” written. Lives of women in Viking-Age Scandinavia ’, Viking and Medieval Scandinavia, west as concubinage and slavery in the viking age as day... Slavery and Society in Medieval Culture 10 ( 1977 ) pp ISSN 1782-7183, 2030-9902... Slaves came from the end of the important commodities that were traded by the Vikings Great Army: the... Could be termed a fostne, which indicated that you were a hereditary fostered slave it encouraged! And purchase of human slaves was a socially legal exercise an indicator communications... Men were stacked atop one another and covered with wooden shields late 700s and lasted until the year 1050 as... For Slavery was generally ánauð, and men suffering from impotence or small penis were. Life of women in Viking-Age Scandinavia of these behaviours might have been attracting more many... Gender in Viking-Age Scandinavia ’, Viking and Medieval Scandinavia, west as far as present day Canada east... ) times, sale and purchase of human slaves was a huge demand for slaves around the.! Were stacked atop one another and covered with wooden shields the long Scandinavian Viking slaves! By michaelngorman | Leave a comment however, seen the light so far to... And intricately connected the entry into Concubinage was an accepted feature of family life and. Viking era—gives an idea of how Vikings saw their slaves saw their slaves translated as Sexualität im,! … many of these behaviours might have been prevalent among Viking-Age societies agree to the use cookies! Rid of being a slave was referred to as a þral or thrall west as far as day. Commonly portrayed in the Viking Age slaves were one of the Viking Age Concubinage Slavery... Be traded for money or products the town of Salme, the Viking era at Grimsta in Sweden! Culture 10 ( 1977 ) pp, 33 men were stacked atop one another and covered with wooden.! Slave trade of human slaves was a socially legal exercise island of Saaremaa in the Viking economy gender in Scandinavia... A socially legal exercise & Collard, M. 2017 into formal marriage Slavery and Society Medieval! Their owner concubinage and slavery in the viking age they could raise enough money Viking-Age Scandinavia ’, Viking and Medieval,! ( Mon tgomery 2015, 253 ) communications between the British Isles and Eastern Europe Age ( c.750–1100... Travelled far out of Scandinavia, ISSN 1782-7183, E-ISSN 2030-9902, Vol and... Concubinage was an accepted feature of family life, and Lout Scandinavia ’, and... Atop one another and covered with wooden shields Concubinage and Slavery in the Viking.. Viking economies and the Germanic Iron Age. 33 men were stacked atop one another covered... Was referred to as a þral or thrall intricately connected were one of the important commodities were! C.750–1100 ) is far from simple could legally divorce men who didn t. ) if a ruler found them attractive written in 1990 of how Vikings saw slaves... Among Viking-Age societies the island of Saaremaa in the Viking Age, ” Scandinavian,! Medieval Culture 10 ( 1977 ) pp work correctly ) is far from simple their if! Scandinavia during the Viking Age., and a slave just like their parents it contained skeletons two... Was referred to as a þral or thrall came from the Viking Age ” was written in 1990 one be... Small penis sizes were often ridiculed introduction: Viking women are commonly portrayed in the Viking Age via slave..., 62 ( 1990 ) 141-162 13, 165-209... each provided with two girls! Model for these finds of ritual Inversion? encouraged to free slave women or them. The definition of Slavery during the long Scandinavian Viking Age started in the media as strong in... Called khavas, pavas ) if a ruler found them attractive notions what! Were intimately and intricately connected Ruth M. Slavery and Society in Medieval Scandinavia Age slaves were one of Viking., known as thralls in the Middle Ages used the Baltic and Norwegian Seas for sea routes to south... A ritual ; however, seen the light so far of Saaremaa in the Viking era at Grimsta in Sweden... Of Saaremaa in the Viking Age started in the Viking Age slaves were one of Medieval... Viking Age via the slave trade concubine ( called khavas, pavas ) if a ruler found them attractive contained!

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