hepatitis a wiki

Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver tissue. [10] A liver transplant may be an option in both acute and chronic liver failure. These newborns should also be regularly tested for infection for at least the first year of life. Drugs - People with hepatitis should avoid taking drugs metabolized by the liver. A hepatitis B 100-szor fertőzőbb, mint a HIV (AIDS vírusa) és a hasonlóan veszélyes hepatitis C vírus. [16] Hepatitis A and hepatitis E behave similarly: they are both transmitted by the fecal–oral route, are more common in developing countries, and are self-limiting illnesses that do not lead to chronic hepatitis. [16][119] In such regions, as much as 90% of children younger than 10 years old have been infected and are immune, corresponding both to lower rates of clinically symptomatic disease and outbreaks. Symptoms of hepatitis A include clay-colored bowel movements, dark urine, and yellowing of the skin and eyes. [19][81] Currently, multidrug treatment is not recommended in treatment of chronic HBV as it is no more effective in the long term than individual treatment with entecavir or tenofovir. Hepatitis A is inflammation of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus. [28] Since widespread screening of blood products for hepatitis C began in 1992, the risk of acquiring hepatitis C from a blood transfusion has decreased from approximately 10% in the 1970s to 1 in 2 million currently. [16] It accounts for more than 55,000 deaths annually with approximately 20 million people worldwide thought to be infected with the virus. vaginal vs. cesarean) has an effect on vertical transmission. It is given by injection into a muscle. [16][75] Treatment is supportive and includes such measures as providing intravenous (IV) hydration and maintaining adequate nutrition. [59] In chronic Hepatitis B and C, natural killer cell function is impaired. [146] A 1997 report demonstrated that a single hospitalization related to hepatitis A cost an average of $6,900 and resulted in around $500 million in total annual healthcare costs. Clay tablets that served as medical handbooks for the ancient Sumerians described the first observations of jaundice. Hepatitis A usually does not progress to a chronic state, and rarely requires hospitalization. [19] Treatment initiation is guided by recommendations issued by The American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) and the European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) and is based on detectable viral levels, HBeAg positive or negative status, ALT levels, and in certain cases, family history of HCC and liver biopsy. [37] However, the National Institutes of Health maintains the LiverTox database for consumers to track all known prescription and non-prescription compounds associated with liver injury. [2] Medications may be used to treat chronic viral hepatitis. However, all of these diseases can lead to scarring, fibrosis, and cirrhosis of the liver. [3] Hepatitis B is mainly sexually transmitted, but may also be passed from mother to baby during pregnancy or childbirth and spread through infected blood. The mainstay of hepatitis E prevention is similar to that for hepatitis A (namely, good hygiene and clean water practices). [16], Parasites can also infect the liver and activate the immune response, resulting in symptoms of acute hepatitis with increased serum IgE (though chronic hepatitis is possible with chronic infections). [82][158], Estimates of the rate of HCV vertical transmission range from 2–8%; a 2014 systematic review and meta-analysis found the risk to be 5.8% in HCV-positive, HIV-negative women. [19] Jaundice can occur as well, but much later in the disease process and is typically a sign of advanced disease. [131], Around 400 B.C., Hippocrates recorded the first documentation of an epidemic jaundice, in particular noting the uniquely fulminant course of a cohort of patients who all died within two weeks. [50] Congenital or perinatal infection with the hepatitis viruses, toxoplasma, rubella, cytomegalovirus, and syphilis can cause neonatal hepatitis. [104][105] Duration of and response to these treatments varies based on genotype. Blumberg continued to study the antigen, and eventually developed the first hepatitis B vaccine using plasma rich in HBsAg, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1976. [103] SVR is defined as an undetectable viral load at 12 weeks after treatment completion and indicates a cure. [16], In healthy patients, 95–99% recover with no long-lasting effects, and antiviral treatment is not warranted. Those at high risk and in need of screening include:[75][76][77], The presence of anti-hepatitis A IgG in the blood indicates past infection with the virus or prior vaccination.[78]. [16] Overall, the mortality rate for acute hepatitis is low: ~0.1% in total for cases of hepatitis A and B, but rates can be higher in certain populations (super infection with both hepatitis B and D, pregnant women, etc.).[16]. [1][6] Acute hepatitis can resolve on its own, progress to chronic hepatitis, or (rarely) result in acute liver failure. [20][21] Cases of drug-induced hepatitis can manifest with systemic signs of an allergic reaction including rash, fever, serositis (inflammation of membranes lining certain organs), elevated eosinophils (a type of white blood cell), and suppression of bone marrow activity. [28] Hepatitis C is the second most common cause of cirrhosis in the US (second to alcoholic hepatitis). [58][59] Type I interferons are the cytokines that drive the antiviral response. In this case, alcoholic and nonalcoholic hepatitis can be distinguished by the pattern of liver enzyme abnormalities; specifically, in alcoholic steatohepatitis AST>ALT with ratio of AST:ALT>2:1 while in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis ALT>AST with ratio of ALT:AST>1.5:1. [77]  If the vaccine is combined hepatitis A and hepatitis B, up to 4 doses may be required. [105] Genotype 1 (GT1), which is the most prevalent genotype in the United States and around the world, can now be cured with a direct acting antiviral regimen. Hepatitis B is a serious liver infection caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV). Therefore, the role of screening is to assess immune status in people who are at high risk of contracting the virus, as well as in people with known liver disease for whom hepatitis A infection could lead to liver failure. In contrast to hepatitis A & B, hepatitis C carries a much higher risk of progressing to chronic hepatitis, approaching 85–90%. [33] There are wide variations in the mechanisms of liver injury and latency period from exposure to development of clinical illness. [9], Once it is acquired, persistence of the hepatitis C virus is the rule, resulting in chronic hepatitis C. The goal of treatment is prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Hepatitis A (ranije poznat kao infektivni hepatitis) je akutno zarazno oboljenje jetre uzrokovano virusom hepatitisa A (HAV). The virus persists in the liver in about 75% to 85% of those initially infected. jetra). [16][29] In early infection (i.e. [19], Most patients who acquire hepatitis D at the same time as hepatitis B (co-infection) recover without developing a chronic infection; however, in people with hepatitis B who later acquire hepatitis D (superinfection), chronic infection is much more common at 80-90%, and liver disease progression is accelerated.[106][115]. [29], Many chemical agents, including medications, industrial toxins, and herbal and dietary supplements, can cause hepatitis. Mange tilfælde har få eller ingen symptomer, især i yngre mennesker. [5][3] Some people with hepatitis have no symptoms, whereas others develop yellow discoloration of the skin and whites of the eyes (jaundice), poor appetite, vomiting, tiredness, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. Wright NMJ, Millson CE, Tompkins CNE (2005). [72] Thus, in patients who have no or negligible alcohol use, the diagnosis is unlikely to be alcoholic hepatitis. When the liver is inflamed or … [19] Seven drugs are approved in the United States:[19], First-line treatments currently used include PEG IFN, entecavir, and tenofovir, subject to patient and physician preference. [122] In the WHO study, the prevalence of HIV-HCV co-infection was markedly higher at 82.4% in those who injected drugs compared to the general population (2.4%). [16], Chronic hepatitis B management aims to control viral replication, which is correlated with progression of disease. [19] Chronic hepatitis interferes with hormonal functions of the liver which can result in acne, hirsutism (abnormal hair growth), and amenorrhea (lack of menstrual period) in women. [31], Excessive alcohol consumption is a significant cause of hepatitis and is the most common cause of cirrhosis in the U.S.[29] Alcoholic hepatitis is within the spectrum of alcoholic liver disease. [15], Hepatitis has a broad spectrum of presentations that range from a complete lack of symptoms to severe liver failure. [29], Ultrasound, CT, and MRI can all identify steatosis (fatty changes) of the liver tissue and nodularity of the liver surface suggestive of cirrhosis. A young boy suffering from Hepatitis-A.png 2,605 × 1,667; 539 KB HAV Infection.png 719 × 619; 35 KB HealthFlow example flowchart hepatitis A immunization 005.jpg 885 × 681; 139 KB [104][105] Currently available treatments include indirect and direct acting antiviral drugs. [158] While the risk of progression to chronic infection is approximately 5% among adults who contract the virus, it is as high as 95% among neonates subject to vertical transmission. [30], Bacterial infection of the liver commonly results in pyogenic liver abscesses, acute hepatitis, or granulomatous (or chronic) liver disease. [98] Infected children have little to no apparent clinical illness, in contrast to adults in whom greater than 80% are symptomatic if infected. [19] In patients with compensated cirrhosis, treatment is recommended regardless of HBeAg status or ALT level, but recommendations differ regarding HBV DNA levels; AASLD recommends treating at DNA levels detectable above 2x103 IU/mL; EASL and WHO recommend treating when HBV DNA levels are detectable at any level. Copenhagen, WHO Regional Office for Europe (Health Evidence Network report; medications to suppress the immune system, Yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes, atypical perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (p-ANCA), American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases, "Hepatitis (Hepatitis A, B, and C) | ACG Patients", "Fatty Liver Disease (Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis)", "Hepatitis C guidance: AASLD-IDSA recommendations for testing, managing, and treating adults infected with hepatitis C virus", "Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 310 diseases and injuries, 1990–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015", "Definition, epidemiology and magnitude of alcoholic hepatitis", "Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015", "Statistics & Surveillance Division of Viral Hepatitis CDC", "Clinical Features, Diagnosis, and Natural History of Drug-Induced Liver Injury", "Hepatitis A Questions and Answers for the Public | Division of Viral Hepatitis | CDC", "When Someone Close to You Has Hepatitis", "Hepatitis C FAQs for the Public | Division of Viral Hepatitis | CDC", "Toxic hepatitis in occupational exposure to solvents", "Drug-induced liver injury: present and future", "NIH launches free database of drugs associated with liver injury", "Chapter 83. During World War II, soldiers received vaccines against diseases such as yellow fever, but these vaccines were stabilized with human serum, presumably contaminated with hepatitis viruses, which often created epidemics of hepatitis. [3], Hepatitis A, B, and D are preventable with immunization. Henry Beecher was one of the foremost critics in an article in the New England Journal of Medicine in 1966, arguing that parents were unaware to the risks of consent and that the research was done to benefit others at the expense of children. [16][98], Similar to Hepatitis A, hepatitis E manifests as large outbreaks and epidemics associated with fecal contamination of water sources. Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is a member of the picornavirus family. [29] In Wilson's disease, excess amounts of copper accumulate in the liver and brain, causing cirrhosis and dementia. [98], Hepatitis B is the most common cause of viral hepatitis in the world with more than 240 million chronic carriers of the virus, 1 million of whom are in the United States. for autoantibodies), nucleic acid testing (i.e. [112] Mortality rates in cases of fulminant hepatitis rise over 80%, but those patients that do survive often make a complete recovery. [90] There is some evidence of hepatitis E infection of animals, serving as a reservoir for human infection. [45] Auto-antibodies found in patients with autoimmune hepatitis include the sensitive but less specific anti-nuclear antibody (ANA), smooth muscle antibody (SMA), and atypical perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (p-ANCA). This will make them immune against … [30] Another protozoan, Entamoeba histolytica, causes hepatitis with distinct liver abscesses. The name is from ancient Greek hepar (ἧπαρ), the root being hepat- (ἡπατ-), meaning liver, and suffix -itis, meaning "inflammation" (c. 1727).The condition can be self-limiting, healing on its own, or can progress to scarring of the liver. [90] It affects predominantly young adults, causing acute hepatitis. The method of transmission is referred to as the fecal-oral route. [90], As excessive alcohol consumption can lead to hepatitis and cirrhosis, the following are maximal recommendations for alcohol consumption:[95], In the United States, universal immunization has led to a two-thirds decrease in hospital admissions and medical expenses due to hepatitis A. [104][105] The indirect acting antivirals include pegylated interferon (PEG IFN) and ribavirin (RBV), which in combination have historically been the basis of therapy for HCV. For some people, hepatitis B infection becomes chronic, meaning it lasts more than six months. Hepatitida A (známá jako infekční žloutenka) je akutní infekční onemocnění jater způsobené virem hepatitidy A (HAV). Many cases have few or no symptoms, especially in the young. The restaurant was purchasing its green onion stock from farms in Mexico at the time. [16][20][21] The complication more frequently occurs in instances of hepatitis B and D co-infection at a rate of 2–20% and in pregnant women with hepatitis E at rate of 15–20% of cases. [91], Hepatitis E is spread primarily through the oral-fecal route but may also be spread by blood and from mother to fetus. Hepatitis A is found throughout the world and manifests as large outbreaks and epidemics associated with fecal contamination of water and food sources. [16][124] In infected pregnant women, Hepatitis E infection can lead to fulminant hepatitis with third trimester mortality rates as high as 30%. [154] Green onion had caused similar outbreaks of hepatitis A in the southern United States prior to this, but not to the same magnitude. There is a Hepatitis A vaccine available for … [98], Hepatitis C infections each year had been declining since the 1980s, but began to increase again in 2006. Hepatitis A can be spread through personal contact, eating raw seafood, or drinking water with the hepatitis A virus in it.This happens mostly in third world countries. vaginal vs. cesarean) is better at reducing vertical transmission in mothers with HBV. [29], In the case of hepatitis B, blood tests exist for multiple virus antigens (which are different components of the virion particle) and antibodies. live or have sex with) people known to have hepatitis B, Incarcerated, or who have been in the past, On long-term hemodialysis, or who have been in the past, Recipients of tattoos in an "unregulated setting", Recipients of blood products or organs prior to 1992 in the United States, Adults in the United States born between 1945 and 1965, Pregnant, and engaging in high-risk behaviors, Workers in a healthcare setting who have had a needlestick injury, Women – ≤ 3 drinks on any given day and ≤ 7 drinks per week, Men – ≤ 4 drinks on any given day and ≤ 14 drinks per week. [63] It is estimated that as much as 20% of people with AH are also infected with hepatitis C.[126] In this population, the presence of hepatitis C virus leads to more severe disease with faster progression to cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and increased mortality. [141] He named the protein the "Australia antigen" and made it the focus of his research. Når der er symptomer, vil de typisk vare omkring otte uger og kan omfatte: kvalme, opkastning, … In the case of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, this cascade is initiated by changes in metabolism associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and lipid dysregulation. Most people who are infected recover completely with no permanent liver damage.Practicing go… [98] Close to 780,000 deaths in the world are attributed to hepatitis B. [129] Worldwide, the estimated prevalence of hepatocellular carcinoma related to NAFLD is 15–30%. MMWR 1999", "Hepatitis A And Hepatitis B Vaccine (Intramuscular Route)", "Phase IV Clinical Trial of Recombinant Hepatitis E Vaccine(Hecolin) - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov", "Drinking Levels Defined | National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA)", "Hepatitis A: Epidemiology and prevention in developing countries", "Pinkbook | Hepatitis B | Epidemiology of Vaccine Preventable Diseases | CDC", "Commentary | U.S. 2013 Surveillance Data for Viral Hepatitis | Statistics & Surveillance  | Division of Viral Hepatitis | CDC", "The Epidemiology of Alcoholic Liver Disease", "Enhancing our understanding of current therapies for Hepatitis C virus (HCV)", "Interferon alpha for chronic hepatitis D", "HEV FAQs for Health Professionals | Division of Viral Hepatitis | CDC", "The clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of STeroids Or Pentoxifylline for Alcoholic Hepatitis (STOPAH): a 2 × 2 factorial randomised controlled trial", "Infection with the delta agent in chronic HBsAg carriers", "Estimation of stage-specific fibrosis progression rates in chronic hepatitis C virus infection: a meta-analysis and meta-regression", "Hepatitis A Information | Division of Viral Hepatitis | CDC", "Hepatitis A Questions and Answers for Health Professionals | Division of Viral Hepatitis | CDC", "Toward a more accurate estimate of the prevalence of hepatitis C in the United States", "Alcoholic hepatitis: current challenges and future directions", "Alcoholic hepatitis and concomitant hepatitis C virus infection", "Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: epidemiology, clinical course, investigation, and treatment", "A brief history of hepatitis milestones", "The road not taken or how I learned to love the liver: A personal perspective on hepatitis history", "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1976", "Current and Future Burden of Chronic Nonmalignant Liver Disease", "Reducing the neglected burden of viral hepatitis in Africa: Strategies for a global approach", "The economics of treating chronic hepatitis B in Asia", "The impact of hepatitis C burden: an evidence-based approach", "Burden of disease and cost of chronic hepatitis C infection in Canada", "Community Is Reeling From Hepatitis Outbreak", "Prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection among HIV+ men who have sex with men: a systematic review and meta-analysis", "Prevalence and burden of HCV co-infection in people living with HIV: a global systematic review and meta-analysis", "A Comprehensive Immunization Strategy to Eliminate Transmission of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in the United States Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) Part 1: Immunization of Infants, Children, and Adolescents", "AASLD guidelines for treatment of chronic hepatitis B", "Safety of tenofovir during pregnancy for the mother and fetus: a systematic review", "Vertical transmission of hepatitis C virus: systematic review and meta-analysis", "Case-fatality risk of pregnant women with acute viral hepatitis type E: a systematic review and meta-analysis", Viral Hepatitis at the Centers for Disease Control, Esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis, Small bowel bacterial overgrowth syndrome, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hepatitis&oldid=999665795, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Wikipedia medicine articles ready to translate, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The recovery phase is characterized by resolution of the clinical symptoms of hepatitis with persistent elevations in, People with poor sanitary habits such as not washing hands after using the restroom or changing diapers, People who do not have access to clean water, People in close contact (either living with or having sexual contact) with someone who has hepatitis A, People traveling to an area with endemic hepatitis A, Born in countries where the prevalence of hepatitis B is high (defined as ≥2% of the population), whether or not they have been vaccinated, Born in the United States whose parents are from countries where the prevalence of hepatitis B is very high (defined as ≥8% of the population), and who were not vaccinated, In close contact with (i.e.

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